Tuberculosis is responsible for an enormous burden of disease worldwide, particularly in poorer regions of the world, and where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is common. Some of the first clinical trials tested tuberculosis treatments, and thus systematic reviews are core to helping establish the evidence-base. In the past, Cochrane Reviews have helped the World Health Organization clarify the key components of the global directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTs) strategy, have assisted in promoting other approaches to improve adherence, and have evaluated a variety of preventive and treatment strategies. Cochrane Reviews have also helped to clarify aspects of clinical management of the disease, including the use of steroids in tuberculous meningitis; and to identify interventions that don’t work, such as Mycobacterium vaccae immunotherapy. They have also evaluated the addition of new interventions such as fluoroquinolones to existing regimens, and whether nutritional supplementation is effective. The reviews have helped us to understand how treatments and prevention strategies need to be modified in populations where HIV is common.